National Science* Challenge

Fall TOURNAMENT: October 17, 2020

Advancing to the playoffs: both JFK teams (NJ), both teams from South Carolina Governor's School of Science and Math, Harvest Christian (Guam), Daviess County (KY), Cardinal Gibbons (NC), and No. 1 ranked State College (PA). Harvest Christian is the only school to have advanced to the playoffs in both of our Theme contests so far, including the National Bible Challenge. Most notable were the last two matches, as JFK1 edged SCGSCM2 270-260. In the finals, State College and JFK were so impressive displaying their scientific knowledge. The title match was tied at 230 at the end of regulation play.

It took nine overtime questions to settle the championship, and had we reached ten without a clear winner, we would have declared dual champions. Here are the first eight of those overtime questions, which each team handled successfully:

JFK/ QUANTITATIVE CHEMISTRY Nitrogen and hydrogen gases react to make ammonia in the Haber process. If 3 moles of nitrogen react with 6 moles of hydrogen, what is the largest number of moles of ammonia that can result?
Ans. 4

STATE COLLEGE/ QUANTITATIVE CHEMISTRY A piece of potassium weighs 86 grams. When it was submerged in a graduated cylinder containing 50 mL of water, the level rose to 150 mL. What is the density of the potassium?
Ans. 0.86 g/mL

STATE COLLEGE / ASTRONOMY Name the phase that the moon is in for each type of eclipse, lunar and solar.
Ans. Full moon for lunar and new moon for solar

Predicted by Alpher and Herman in 1948, their first estimate for its temperature was 5 Kelvin. Penzias and Wilson received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics for their 1964 measurements of it using a Dicke [dik] radiometer. The Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect says that density distorts values of what universal temperature leftover from the big bang, CMBR for short?
Ans. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

JFK/ PHYSIOLOGY The constant, complex, orderly set of chemical changes in cells, is called what?
Ans. Metabolism

STATE COLLEGE / PHYSIOLOGY Muscular contractions of the esophagus that push food through in swallowing are called what?
Ans. Peristalsis

STATE COLLEGE / DISTANCE PROBLEMS A boat travels at 24 mph. A patrol boat starts 3 hours later from the same place and travels 32 mph in the same direction. How long will it need to overtake the first and what distance will it cover?
Ans. 9 hours, distance 288 miles

JFK/ DISTANCE PROBLEMS Two runners leave the same starting point at the same time, but run in different directions, perpendicular to each other. The northbound runner is travelling at 3 miles per hour, while the eastbound runner is travelling at 4 miles per hour. Find the rate at which the distance between the runners is increasing at two hours.
Ans. 5 miles per hour

The ninth question was this:
State College/ GEOLOGY The era is Cenozoic, the period is Quaternary and it spans earth from 1.65 million to 10,000 years ago. What epoch is defined by these geologic time frames?
State College answered holocene, but JFK knew it was The Pleistocene, giving them the title.

In the middle school division, Trinity Collegiate (SC) won the title and Harvest Christian (Guam) finished second.

Rules & Format

Other than the number of preliminary matches, all rules will be the same as those used at the National Academic Championship Rules

*With Some Math!